Kidney Cancer Risk in Oil Refining in Finland: A Nested Case-Referent Study
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether occupational exposure to hydrocarbons in the oil-refining activity increases the risk of kidney cancer.
Methods: This case-referent study was nested within the cohort of employees in the oil refinery industry in Finland in 1967 to 1982 (n = 9454). The final data included 30 cases of kidney cancer and 81 age- and sex-matched referents.
Results: There was a threefold increase in the kidney cancer risk for exposure to hydrocarbons in crude oil (odds ratio, 3.1; confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.9; 11 exposed cases). The risk was associated with the highest cumulative exposure category to hydrocarbons in crude oil.
Conclusions: Occupational exposure in oil refining, particularly to crude oil, may increase kidney cancer risk. The study assessed historical exposures; further information needs to be collected for evaluating current exposures.